A very common visitor that you might find in and around the lodge area is the Foam nest frog (also known as the Brown tree frog). The colour of these individuals depends on where you had seen them, as they can change their colour depending on their surrounding environment – when found on a tree they can be anything from a light to a very dark brown. In certain areas these frogs can be seen in a pearl white form.
Even though these frogs can change colour, their most interesting feature is the way they breed. The male will climb onto a branch that is overhanging a water source and start calling for a female to come and join him. The male will grasp the female (amplexus) while she starts laying the eggs. The male then externally fertilizes the eggs. During this whole procedure the male and female frogs gives off foam into which the fertile eggs are deposited. In this way the foam nest, that is overhanging a water source, eliminates the phase in which the eggs hang defenseless in the water, open to any sort of predation from fish to insects and even water birds.
When the eggs have fully developed into tadpoles they drop from the foam nest into the water where the free swimming tadpoles can defend themselves by fleeing to a safe spot.
Story by Riaan (River Lodge)
With the end of winter drawing close, the anticipation of a facelift for the bush in general is the main talking point at the moment. As the temperatures are slowly increasing, our cold blooded friends are starting to show face, with an increasing amount of “snake trails” that can be seen crossing the roads and one or two of our resident snakes around the lodge peeping their heads out of their crevices where they had been laying dormant for the winter.
The most common of these is the Spotted Bush snake. It is a harmless snake (well at least to humans) because it does not have any venom glands. This arboreal (tree living) snake employs a different method of catching its prey. The Spotted Bush snake is a constrictor, this means that the snake keeps dead still and waits patiently for an unwary skink or frog to pass by; it then lashes out at the speed of light and catches the prey item with a mouth full of needle sharp teeth. The prey item is then encircled by the coiling motion of the snake’s body, which clinches tighter and tighter every time the prey exhales. It is only a matter of time before the inevitable is achieved and the prey is swallowed whole, usually with the head first to avoid one of the limbs causing a blockage.
This method of catching prey is also employed by Southern Africa’s largest snake, the African Rock Python which can get up to 6meters.
The Spotted bush snake is a very pretty snake; it is a bright green color with black dots from the head all the way down the body for about two thirds of the body length. The last section of the snake towards the tail fades from a bright green to a blue/purple color.
Story by Riaan (River Lodge)
The males have to be very careful when seeking out a female for mating as she might mistake his presence as lunch instead of a reproduction opportunity. So he does a little dance for her by waving his pincers, swaying his tail and shivering his body to send vibrations through the ground. Only when she winks at him, he will approach closely.
Males have special hooks on their pincers to grab a hold of the female’s pincers. Once he has her tightly, the dance commences. He has special organs on his abdomen and uses it to deposit his spermatophores. He then tries to turn the female around and ensure the hook on the small package of sperm catch onto the female’s genital opening. This dance may take up to 30 minutes as the male’s dance and weave to align the female just right. If he fails in dancing, he may pick her up and drop her down on the package, causing the package to break and release the sperm. The female then stands motionless for a short period.
Thereafter they will break apart and continuously sting each other. In some cases where the female is larger, she might try to kill the male and eat him. Fatal attraction if ever there was such a thing.
Scorpions have the longest gestation period of all arachnids (8-legged insect-like creatures) and depending on the species, could be from a few to 18 months and produce 8 to 32 young at a time. They get quite old and only reach adulthood at 1 year.
Story by Jacques (River Lodge)
As we all know, the winter has past and spring is upon us. So on a lovely warm and sunny afternoon, we left the lodge on a quest to find animals. Around an hour into the drive, my tracker (Magnum) stopped me and told me to look into the relatively small Knob thorn tree. I was amazed to find a small foam nest frog on a branch. I showed my guests, and spoke about the nest of this frog. One lady peeks over her husband’s shoulder and asked me how this little frog survived winter, because we all know that a frog likes and needs water. I immediately smiled and said that is a good question.
This little frog will make some adaptations to his/her body to slow their metabolism down and breathe less to save energy and moisture. They will also find a spot where they can rest without being bothered and where it is safe, hence the nest being made in the Knob thorn tree.
They will then tuck away their legs and seal it off with mucus to make sure they don’t lose moisture. In some cases, breathing will be stopped completely and oxygen will be taken up through the skin. The cells inside the skin will actually change so that they can take moisture in but nothing can be lost, almost like a one way valve.
So these animals risk everything and go through so many changes and troubles just to get through the winter. So next time you this winter is cold and you can’t stand it, think about these little creatures and how they change their whole bodies to survive.
Story by Rassie (River Lodge)